The main active substance in Cordyceps militaris mushrooms

Cordycepin has a 3’-deoxyadenosin structure which is a purin alkaloid in the form of nucleoside adenosine losing one oxygen at position 3 ‘of ribose sugar. Cordycepin was first isolated in 1950 from Cordyceps militaris. By analyzing NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (infrared) spectrum, cordycepin is considered as a bioactive compound extracted from fruiting bodies and mycelium. Cordycepin has the formula C10H13N5O3 and has a molecular weight of 251, melting point at 230-231OC, maximum absorption at 259 nm. Can be dissolved in salt buffer, methanol or ethanol, but insoluble in benzene, ether or chloroform, so many studies have used disinfectant salt solution and phosphate buffer as a solvent.

Cordycepin
Cordycepin has a 3’-deoxyadenosin structure which is a purin alkaloid in the form of nucleoside adenosine losing one oxygen at position 3 ‘of ribose sugar. Cordycepin was first isolated in 1950 from Cordyceps militaris. By analyzing NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (infrared) spectrum, cordycepin is considered as a bioactive compound extracted from fruiting bodies and mycelium. Cordycepin has the formula C10H13N5O3 and has a molecular weight of 251, melting point at 230-231OC, maximum absorption at 259 nm. Can be dissolved in salt buffer, methanol or ethanol, but insoluble in benzene, ether or chloroform, so many studies have used disinfectant salt solution and phosphate buffer as a solvent.
Because cordycepin is structurally similar to adenosine, RNA polymerase is indistinguishable. When participating in the synthesis of RNA molecules, cordycepin prevents the further stretching of the RNA and creates RNA molecules that end soon. Therefore, cordycepin is considered an effective anticancer. In 2003, Sun et al. Demonstrated a cordycepin content with higher antitumor activity in Cordyceps kyushuensis than Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps militaris was higher in natural culture, and in mycelium higher than the host larvae. The author also asserts that this compound has a high pharmacological potential. In 2007, Noriko Yoshikawa et al demonstrated cordycepin with effective anticancer activity through inhibition of methylation of nucleic acids and polyadeninization. The similarity of cordycepin is 2 ’, 5’-oligoadenin has antiviral effect through inhibiting reverse transcriptase. The author also demonstrated that the adenosine precursor, adenosine, also has antitumor activity.

Cordyceptic acid
Cordyceptic acid, an isomer of quinic acid, was first studied in Cordyceps sinensis in 1957. The crystal structure of cordyceptic acid is defined as D-mannitol. Mannitol is the main biological compound with many important activities such as free radical resistance, diuretic, antitussive. It exists in nature mainly in roots, stems and leaves; Found in edible mushrooms, carrots and moss. The cordyceptic acid content in Cordyceps is about 7-29%. Mannitol is composed of an alcohol and a sugar, or a polyol; similar to xylitol or sorbitol. However, mannitol tends to remove hydrogen ions in water making the solution acidic. The chemical formula of mannitol is C6H14O6, molecular weight 182, melting point 166oC, density 1,489 (20oC) and boiling temperature 290-295oC (467 kPa). Mannitol has many important properties used in medicine and food, the mannitol content in Cordyceps mushroom body is about 29-85 mg / g, mycelium has higher cordyceptic acid content than in fruit. .

Polysaccharid
Cordyceps contain large amounts of polysaccharides, about 3-8% by weight, which is one of the main biological compounds. Since 1977, numerous scientific studies in China and Japan have demonstrated the benefits of polysaccharides in anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The polysaccharide compound in Cordyceps is a multi-armed galactomannan. These compounds include D-mannose and D-galactose at a ratio of 3: 5, usually containing a small percentage of protein. It is a branching structure of (1-6) and (1-2) bonds of α-D-mannopyranosyl radicals in the main circuit, with diverse bonds between adjacent monosaccharides forming structures. helix and small ring. However, a recently separated mannoglucan with a molecular weight of approximately 7700 g / mol contained only mannose and glactose units at a ratio of 1: 9. The analysis shows that it has an α-D-glucan framework with links (1-4) and (1-3); and the branch circuits of α-D- (1-6) -mannopyranose (Manp) are attached to the frame through the O-6 position of α- (1-3) -glucopyranosyl (Glcp). This study also shows that the pharmacokinetics of polysaccharides are from its properties such as molecular weight, for example, polyglucans with a higher molecular weight (10-1000 kDa) tend to be more soluble in water and thus has a more effective antitumor activity. However, the anticancer activity is due to the immune boosting effect of the body rather than the direct cell death effect.

Ergosterol
Ergosterol is an important precursor

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